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Dietmar Wischmeyer erklärt Niedersachsen Retrieved Twitchcon Berlin Tickets October After the Nazi seizure of power inseveral state institutions were placed in Braunschweig, including the Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt in Völkenrodethe Hitler Youth Academy for Youth Leadership[31] and the SS - Junkerschule Braunschweig. The colour has been changed by Christian baptism of Widukind into white. To Colonel Riedesel. Archived from the original on 17 May Licht, Strom. Akzeptieren Weitere Informationen Nach einer schnellen und kostenlosen Registrierung kannst du dies tun! I am Bester Sportwettenanbieter young lady aged Herzlich Willkommen von mir und meiner Bande! ГЋВ±ГЏЖ’ГЋВє Sonnenbrille Lady Line - Vintage er - er. Die Model-Karriere begann sie vergleichsweise spät, doch sie setzte sich in den Wettbewerben souverän gegen viele jüngere Kühe durch.

For other uses, see Braunschweig disambiguation and Brunswick disambiguation. City and district in Lower Saxony, Germany. Place in Lower Saxony, Germany.

Coat of arms. Location of Brunswick within Lower Saxony. See also: Timeline of Braunschweig. Altstadtmarkt , with Old Town town hall left and Stechinelli-Haus.

See also: Braunschweig electoral district. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. See also: Brunswick disambiguation.

Main article: List of people from Braunschweig. Hermann Blumenau — , founder of Blumenau , Brazil. Theodore Steinway — , piano makers [] Ludger Tom Ring the Younger — , painter [] Friedrich Georg Weitsch — , painter [] Christian Ludewig Theodor Winkelmann — , piano maker Franz Winter , archaeologist.

Germany portal. Retrieved August 16, Dezember The American Heritage Dictionary 3rd ed. Retrieved Fuhse ed. Archived from the original on Braunschweiger Stadtgeschichte in German.

Braunschweig: Wagner. Braunschweiger Stadtlexikon in German 4th ed. Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon — Jahrhundert in German.

Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung. Jahrtausendrückblick einer Region , Braunschweig: Appelhans Verlag, pp. Oppermann : Landeskunde des Herzogtums Braunschweig.

Geschichte und Geographie. Braunschweig: E. Appelhans, p. Deutsche Staatseisenbahn Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel.

Braunschweig: Joh. Meyer Verlag. Die Sozialdemokratie im Land Braunschweig bis in German. Bonn: Verlag J. Dietz Nachf. Jahrtausendrückblick einer Region , Braunschweig: Appelhans Verlag, p.

Zwangsarbeit und Kriegswirtschaft im Lande Braunschweig — in German. Braunschweig: Appelhans Verlag.

Deutsche Welle. Norddeutscher Rundfunk. Archived from the original PDF on Neue Zürcher Zeitung in German. Stadt Braunschweig.

Retrieved 24 May Wo Braunschweigs erste Bücher standen in German. Mittelalterliche Kirchen in Braunschweig in German. Die Zeit in German. September " PDF in German.

Stadt Braunschweig [City of Braunschweig] in German. The Mayor of Bath. Bath and North East Somerset Council. Archived from the original on 27 October Retrieved 12 December Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg [City of Magdeburg].

Omaha Sister Cities. Light Rail Now. Retrieved April 7, Archived from the original PDF on 7 March Retrieved 29 February Retrieved 10 May Translated by Stone, William L.

Albany: J. Brunswick, February 14, To Colonel Riedesel. Retrieved August 24, Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 8 October Archived from the original on 31 August Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 27 August Archived from the original on 23 August Archived from the original PDF on 7 December Retrieved 8 August Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon — 8.

Neue Deutsche Biographie in German. Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 9 October KZ-Gedenkstätte Neuengamme. Niedersächsisches Ministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz.

Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 28 October Der Spiegel. See also: Bibliography of the history of Braunschweig.

Braunschweig at Wikipedia's sister projects. Places adjacent to Braunschweig. Cities in Germany by population.

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich. Complete list Municipalities Metropolitan regions Cities with more than , inhabitants. Urban and rural districts in the state of Lower Saxony in Germany.

Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter. Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Brunswick Magdeburg. Cologne 1 Dortmund 1. Namespaces Article Talk.

Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. View over Braunschweig. Flag Coat of arms. Urban district. Ulrich Markurth SPD. Tram 1. Tram 2. Tram 3. Tram 4. Tram 5.

Wolfsburg , Berlin. Hanover , Osnabrück. Hildesheim , Paderborn , Bielefeld. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples.

Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover ; the state of Lower Saxony has adopted the coat of arms and other symbols of the former kingdom.

It was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe , although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe.

The state and city of Bremen is an enclave entirely surrounded by Lower Saxony. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands.

In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest , whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone , productive soils with high natural fertility occur.

Under these conditions—with loam and sand -containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally.

The state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems , Weser , Aller , and Elbe. For other significant elevations see: List of mountains and hills in Lower Saxony.

Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state. The lowest point in the state, at about 2.

The state's economy, population, and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Stadthagen, Celle, Braunschweig, Wolfsburg, Hildesheim, and Salzgitter.

Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as historically and culturally.

In the regions that used to be independent, especially the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick , Hanover , Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe , a marked local regional awareness exists.

By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres.

Sometimes, overlaps and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are also included in the list.

Lower Saxony falls climatically into the north temperate zone of central Europe that is affected by prevailing Westerlies and is located in a transition zone between the maritime climate of Western Europe and the continental climate of Eastern Europe.

This transition is clearly noticeable within the state: whilst the northwest experiences an Atlantic North Sea coastal to Sub-Atlantic climate, with comparatively low variations in temperature during the course of the year and a surplus water budget, the climate towards the southeast is increasingly affected by the Continent.

This is clearly shown by greater temperature variations between the summer and winter halves of the year and in lower and more variable amounts of precipitation across the year.

This sub-continental effect is most sharply seen in the Wendland, in the Weser Uplands Hamelin to Göttingen and in the area of Helmstedt.

The highest levels of precipitation are experienced in the Harz because the Lower Saxon part forms the windward side of this mountain range against which orographic rain falls.

Lower Saxony is divided into 37 districts Landkreise or simply Kreise :. On 1 November the districts of Osterode and Göttingen were merged under the name Göttingen, not influencing the city's special status.

The name of Saxony derives from that of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons. Before the late medieval period, there was a single Duchy of Saxony.

The term "Lower Saxony" was used after the dissolution of the stem duchy in the late 13th century to disambiguate the parts of the former duchy ruled by the House of Welf from the Electorate of Saxony on one hand, and from the Duchy of Westphalia on the other.

The name and coat of arms of the present state go back to the Germanic tribe of Saxons. During the Migration Period some of the Saxon peoples left their homeland in Holstein about the 3rd century and pushed southwards over the Elbe, where they expanded into the sparsely populated regions in the rest of the lowlands, in the present-day Northwest Germany and the northeastern part of what is now the Netherlands.

From about the 7th century the Saxons had occupied a settlement area that roughly corresponds to the present state of Lower Saxony, of Westphalia and a number of areas to the east, for example, in what is now west and north Saxony-Anhalt.

The Frisians had not moved into this region; for centuries they preserved their independence in the most northwesterly region of the present-day Lower Saxon territory.

The original language of the folk in the area of Old Saxony was West Low German , one of the varieties of language in the Low German dialect group.

The establishment of permanent boundaries between what later became Lower Saxony and Westphalia began in the 12th century.

In , in a treaty between the Archbishopric of Cologne and the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg the lands claimed by the two territories were separated from each other.

The northern part of the Weser-Ems region was placed under the rule of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The word Niedersachsen was first used before in a Dutch rhyming chronicle Reimchronik.

At the same time a distinction was made with the eastern part of the old Saxon lands from the central German principalities later called Upper Saxony for dynastic reasons.

The close historical links between the domains of the Lower Saxon Circle now in modern Lower Saxony survived for centuries especially from a dynastic point of view.

The majority of historic territories whose land now lies within Lower Saxony were sub-principalities of the medieval, Welf estates of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

All the Welf princes called themselves dukes "of Brunswick and Lüneburg" despite often ruling parts of a duchy that was forever being divided and reunited as various Welf lines multiplied or died out.

Over the course of time two great principalities survived east of the Weser: the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick after Hanover became a Prussian province ; after Brunswick became a free state.

Historically a close tie exists between the royal house of Hanover Electorate of Hanover to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as a result of their personal union in the 18th century.

West of the River Hunte a "de-Westphalianising process" began in [7] After the Congress of Vienna the territories of the later administrative regions Regierungsbezirke of Osnabrück and Aurich transferred to the Kingdom of Hanover.

This indicates that at that time the western administrations of the Prussian Province of Hanover and the state of Oldenburg were perceived as being "Lower Saxon".

The forerunners of today's state of Lower Saxony were lands that were geographically and, to some extent, institutionally interrelated from very early on.

The County of Schaumburg not to be confused with the Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe around the towns of Rinteln and Hessisch Oldendorf did indeed belong to the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau until , a province that also included large parts of the present state of Hesse, including the cities of Kassel , Wiesbaden and Frankfurt am Main ; but in , however, the County of Schaumburg became part of the Prussian Province of Hanover.

Also before , namely , the city of Cuxhaven has been fully integrated into the Prussian Province of Hanover by the Greater Hamburg Act , so that in , when the state of Lower Saxony was founded, only four states needed to be merged.

With the exception of Bremen and the areas that were ceded to the Soviet Occupation Zone in , all those areas allocated to the new state of Lower Saxony in , had already been merged into the "Constituency Association of Lower Saxony" in In a lecture on 14 September , Dietmar von Reeken described the emergence of a "Lower Saxony consciousness" in the 19th century, the geographical basis of which was used to invent a territorial construct: the resulting local heritage societies Heimatvereine and their associated magazines routinely used the terms "Lower Saxony" or "Lower Saxon" in their names.

At the end of the s in the context of discussions about a reform of the Reich, and promoted by the expanding local heritage movement Heimatbewegung , a year conflict started between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia".

The supporters of this dispute were administrative officials and politicians, but regionally focussed scientists of various disciplines were supposed to have fuelled the arguments.

In the s, a real Lower Saxony did not yet exist, but there was a plethora of institutions that would have called themselves "Lower Saxon".

The motives and arguments in the disputes between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia" were very similar on both sides: economic interests, political aims, cultural interests and historical aspects.

Its minister president, Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , had already suggested in June the formation of a state of Lower Saxony, that was to include the largest possible region in the middle of the British Zone.

In addition to the regions that actually became Lower Saxony subsequently, Kopf asked, in a memorandum dated April , for the inclusion of the former Prussian district of Minden-Ravensberg i.

The strong Welf connotations of this draft, according to Thomas Vogtherr, did not simplify the development of a Lower Saxon identity after An alternative model, proposed by politicians in Oldenburg and Brunswick, envisaged the foundation of the independent state of "Weser-Ems", that would be formed from the state of Oldenburg, the Hanseatic City of Bremen and the administrative regions of Aurich and Osnabrück.

Several representatives of the state of Oldenburg even demanded the inclusion of the Hanoverian districts of Diepholz , Syke , Osterholz-Scharmbeck and Wesermünde in the proposed state of "Weser-Ems".

Likewise an enlarged State of Brunswick was proposed in the southeast to include the Regierungsbezirk of Hildesheim and the district of Gifhorn.

Had this plan come to fruition, the territory of the present Lower Saxony would have consisted of three states of roughly equal size.

If the State of Oldenburg was to be dissolved, Vechta District would much rather be included in the Westphalian region.

Since the foundation of the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Hanover on 23 August the northern and eastern border of North Rhine-Westphalia has largely been identical with that of the Prussian Province of Westphalia.

In the end, at the meeting of the Zone Advisory Board on 20 September , Kopf's proposal with regard to the division of the British occupation zone into three large states proved to be capable of gaining a majority.

But there were exceptions:. The demands of Dutch politicians that the Netherlands should be given the German regions east of the Dutch-German border as war reparations , were roundly rejected at the London Conference of 26 March In fact only about 1.

The first Lower Saxon parliament or Landtag met on 9 December It was not elected; rather it was established by the British Occupation Administration a so-called "appointed parliament".

That same day the parliament elected the Social Democrat , Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , the former Hanoverian president Regierungspräsident as their first minister president.

Kopf led a five-party coalition, whose basic task was to rebuild a state afflicted by the war's rigours.

Kopf's cabinet had to organise an improvement of food supplies and the reconstruction of the cities and towns destroyed by Allied air raids during the war years.

Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf remained — interrupted by the time in office of Heinrich Hellwege — — as the head of government in Lower Saxony until The greatest problem facing the first state government in the immediate post-war years was the challenge of integrating hundreds of thousands of refugees from Germany's former territories in the east such as Silesia and East Prussia , which had been annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union.

Lower Saxony was at the western end of the direct escape route from East Prussia and had the longest border with the Soviet Zone. On 3 October Lower Saxony took over the sponsorship of the very large number of refugees from Silesia.

In there was still a shortage of , homes according to official figures. During the period when Germany was divided, the Lower Saxon border crossing at Helmstedt found itself on the main transport artery to West Berlin and, from to was the busiest European border crossing point.

Of economic significance for the state was the Volkswagen concern, that restarted the production of civilian vehicles in , initially under British management, and in transferred into the ownership of the newly founded country of West Germany and state of Lower Saxony.

Overall, Lower Saxony, with its large tracts of rural countryside and few urban centres, was one of the industrially weaker regions of the federal republic for a long time.

Even in economically prosperous times the jobless totals in Lower Saxony are constantly higher than the federal average. He was replaced in by Alfred Kubel.

The arguments about the Gorleben Nuclear Waste Repository , that began during the time in office of minister president Ernst Albrecht — , have played an important role in state and federal politics since the end of the s.

In Gerhard Schröder entered the office of minister president. It enables referenda and plebiscites and establishes environmental protection as a fundamental state principle.

From these parishes the new municipality of Amt Neuhaus was created on 1 October Because he had been linked with various scandals in his home city of Brunswick, he resigned in and was replaced by Sigmar Gabriel.

After the elections on 20 January McAllister was deselected. Between and , the state's districts and independent towns were grouped into eight regions, with different status for the two regions Verwaltungsbezirke comprising the formerly free states of Brunswick and Oldenburg.

In the regions were merged into four governorates Regierungsbezirke : Since the Bezirksregierungen regional governments have been broken up again.

On 1 January the four administrative regions or governorates Regierungsbezirke , into which Lower Saxony had been hitherto divided, were dissolved.

The According to the archaeozoologist Ivo Verheijen, 6. Researchers also uncovered two long bones and 30 small flint flakes that were used as tools for knapping among the elephant bones.

Jordi Serangeli. At the end of , there were almost Religion in Lower Saxony Census : [22]. The census stated that a majority of the population were Christians As of , the Evangelical Church in Germany was the faith of Together, these member churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany gather a substantial part of the Protestant population in Germany.

The Catholic Church was the faith of The Catholic faith is mainly concentrated to the regions of Oldenburger Münsterland, region of Osnabrück, region of Hildesheim and in the Western Eichsfeld.

The Gross domestic product GDP of the state was Agriculture, strongly weighted towards the livestock sector, has always been a very important economic factor in the state.

The north and northwest of Lower Saxony are mainly made up of coarse sandy soil that makes crop farming difficult and therefore grassland and cattle farming are more prevalent in those areas.

Towards the south and southeast, extensive loess layers in the soil left behind by the last ice age allow high-yield crop farming.

One of the principal crops there is sugar beet. Consequently, the Land has a big food industry, mainly organized in small and medium-sized enterprises SME.

Mining has also been an important source of income in Lower Saxony for centuries.

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He had previously established ties to the English crown in , through his marriage to King Henry II of England 's daughter Matilda , sister of Richard the Lionheart.

During the Middle Ages , Braunschweig was an important center of trade, one of the economic and political centers in Northern Europe and a member of the Hanseatic League from the 13th century to the middle of the 17th century.

Because of the growing power of Braunschweig's burghers , the Princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , who ruled over one of the subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg, finally moved their Residenz out of the city and to the nearby town of Wolfenbüttel in Influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment , dukes like Anthony Ulrich and Charles I became patrons of the arts and sciences.

In Charles I founded the Collegium Carolinum , predecessor of the Braunschweig University of Technology , and in he moved the ducal residence back to Braunschweig.

With this he attracted poets and thinkers such as Lessing , Leisewitz , and Jakob Mauvillon to his court and the city. In , the city was captured by the French during the Napoleonic Wars and became part of the short-lived Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia in The exiled duke Frederick William raised a volunteer corps, the Black Brunswickers , who fought the French in several battles.

After the Congress of Vienna in , Braunschweig was made capital of the reestablished independent Duchy of Brunswick , later a constituent state of the German Empire from His absolutist governing style had previously alienated the nobility and bourgeoisie , while the lower classes were disaffected by the bad economic situation.

During the night of 7—8 September , the ducal palace in Braunschweig was stormed by an angry mob, set on fire, and destroyed completely.

During William's reign, liberal reforms were made and Brunswick's parliament was strengthened. During the 19th century, industrialisation caused a rapid growth of population in the city, eventually causing Braunschweig to be for the first time significantly enlarged beyond its medieval fortifications and the River Oker.

After the Landtag election of , Brunswick became the second state in Germany where the Nazis participated in government, when the National Socialist German Workers' Party NSDAP formed a coalition government with several conservative and right-wing parties.

On 17—18 October , , SA stormtroopers marched through the city, street fights between Nazis, socialists, and communists left several dead or injured.

After the Nazi seizure of power in , several state institutions were placed in Braunschweig, including the Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt in Völkenrode , the Hitler Youth Academy for Youth Leadership , [31] and the SS - Junkerschule Braunschweig.

In , a subcamp of the concentration camp Neuengamme was established in Braunschweig. Hundreds of prisoners, mostly Jews, lived in brutal conditions and hundreds died from hunger, disease, and overwork.

The Allied air raid on October 15, , destroyed most of the city's churches, and the Altstadt old town , the largest homogeneous ensemble of half-timbered houses in Germany.

Small sections of the city survived Allied bombing, so remain to represent its distinctive architecture. Politically, after the war, the Free State of Brunswick was dissolved by the Allied occupying authorities , Braunschweig ceased to be a capital, and most of its lands were incorporated in the newly formed state of Lower Saxony.

The city lost its historically strong economic ties to what was then East Germany ; for decades, economic growth remained below and unemployment stayed above the West German average.

On 28 February , as part of a district reform in Lower Saxony, the rural district of Braunschweig , which had surrounded the city, was disestablished.

The major part of the former district was incorporated into the city of Braunschweig, increasing its population by roughly 52, people. In the s, efforts increased to reconstruct historic buildings that had been destroyed in the air raid.

As of [update] , the population of Braunschweig was , In , 91, people or A total of 64, of Braunschweig's residents, including German citizens, had an immigrant background in Happy Rizzi House.

Parks and gardens in the city include the botanical garden Botanischer Garten der Technischen Universität Braunschweig , founded in by Johann Heinrich Blasius , the Bürgerpark , the Löwenwall with an obelisk from , the Prinz-Albrecht-Park , and the Inselwallpark.

Braunschweig is made up of 19 boroughs German: Stadtbezirke , [54] which themselves may consist of several quarters German: Stadtteile [55] each.

The 19 boroughs, with their official numbers, are:. The council of the city is made up of the fractions of the different parties 54 seats and the lord mayor, who is elected directly, with one seat.

Braunschweig is twinned with: [59]. Braunschweig's city centre is mostly a car-free pedestrian zone. City roads are generally wide, built after World War II to support the anticipated use of the car.

There are several car parks in the city. Many residents travel around town by bicycle using an extensive system of bicycle-only lanes.

The main train station includes a bicycle parking area. The city is on the main rail line between Frankfurt and Berlin. First opened in , it has been modernized, including a 3.

The municipally owned Braunschweiger Verkehrs-AG currently operates five tram lines and several bus lines. The tram lines are: [66].

Many other geographical locations around the world are named Brunswick, after the historical English name of Braunschweig. Ironically, the city of Braunschweig was not ruled by the Hanoverians while its name was being given to other Brunswicks around the world.

Starting in , the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg underwent a series of divisions and mergers, with parts of the territory being transferred between various branches of the family.

The city of Braunschweig went to the senior branch of the house, the Wolfenbüttel line , while Lüneburg eventually ended up with the Hanover line.

Although the territory had been split, all branches of the family continued to style themselves as the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg.

The Hanover line, being the last surviving line of the family, subsequently held the throne of the Duchy of Brunswick from November until November Braunschweig has been an important industrial area.

Braunschweig University of Technology German: Technische Universität Braunschweig was founded in and is the oldest member of TU9 , an incorporated society of the nine most prestigious, oldest, and largest universities focusing on engineering and technology in Germany.

With approximately 18, students, Braunschweig University of Technology is the third largest university in Lower Saxony. Also located in Braunschweig is the Martino-Katharineum German Wikipedia , a secondary school founded in In , the German weekly business news magazine Wirtschaftswoche ranked Braunschweig as one of the most dynamic economic spaces in all of Germany.

Braunschweig was one of the centres of the industrialization in Northern Germany. During the 19th and early 20th century the canning and railroad industries and the sugar production were of great importance for Braunschweig's economy, [77] but eventually other branches such as the automotive industry became more important, while especially the canning industry began to vanish from the city after the end of World War II.

The fashion label NewYorker , the publishing house Westermann Verlag , Nordzucker , Volkswagen Financial Services and Volkswagen Bank have their headquarters in the city as well as the Volkswagen utility vehicle holding.

Also two major optical companies were headquartered in Braunschweig: Voigtländer and Rollei. During the s and early s the computer companies Atari and Commodore International both had branches for development and production within the city.

Braunschweig is the home of two piano companies, both known worldwide for the high quality of their instruments: Schimmel and Grotrian-Steinweg.

Both companies were founded in the 19th century. Additionally Sandberg Guitars is based in Braunschweig. Braunschweig is famous for Till Eulenspiegel , a medieval jester who played many practical jokes on its citizens.

It also had many breweries, and still a very peculiar kind of beer is made called Mumme , first quoted in , a malt-extract that was shipped all over the world.

Braunschweiger Mettwurst , a soft, spreadable smoked pork sausage, is named after the city. Other traditional local dishes include white asparagus , Braunschweiger Lebkuchen , Braunkohl a variant of kale served with Bregenwurst , and Uhlen un Apen Low German for " Owls and Guenons ", a pastry.

Braunschweig's major local newspaper is the Braunschweiger Zeitung , first published in Schoduvel , a medieval Northern German form of carnival was celebrated in Braunschweig as early as the 13th century.

An annual Weihnachtsmarkt Christmas market is held in late November and December on the Burgplatz in the centre of Braunschweig.

In the market had , visitors. The city's most important museum is the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum , a well known art museum and the oldest public museum in Germany, founded in The State Museum of Brunswick Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum , founded in , houses a permanent collection documenting the history of the Brunswick area ranging from its early history to the present.

The Municipal Museum of Brunswick Städtisches Museum Braunschweig , founded in , is a museum for art and cultural history, documenting the history of the city of Braunschweig.

The State Natural History Museum is a zoology museum founded in Frequent exhibitions of contemporary art are also held by the Art Society of Braunschweig German: Kunstverein Braunschweig , housed in the Villa Salve Hospes , a classicist villa built between and The Braunschweig Classix Festival was an annual classical music festival.

It is the largest promoter of classical music in the region and one of the most prominent music festivals in Lower Saxony.

From to , and again since , the annual finals of the international breakdance competition Battle of the Year have been held at the Volkswagen Halle in Braunschweig.

Braunschweiger TSC is among the leading competitive formation dance teams in the world and has won multiple World and European championship titles.

Braunschweig's major local football team is Eintracht Braunschweig. Founded in , Eintracht Braunschweig can look back on a long and chequered history.

Eintracht Braunschweig won the German football championship in , and currently plays in the 3. Bundesliga , the third tier of German football, and attracts a large number of supporters.

Braunschweig was also arguably the city in which the first ever game of football in Germany took place. The game had been brought to Germany by the local school teacher Konrad Koch , also the first to write down a German version of the rules of football , [nb 1] who organized the first match between pupils from his school Martino-Katharineum in Eintracht Braunschweig also fields a successful women's field hockey team that claimed nine national championship titles between and In the past, the club also had first or second tier teams in the sports of ice hockey , field handball , and water polo.

The New Yorker Lions formerly Braunschweig Lions are the city's American football team, winning a record number of 12 German Bowl titles, as well as five Eurobowls a shared record.

The city's professional basketball team, the Basketball Löwen Braunschweig , plays in the Basketball Bundesliga , the highest level in Germany.

Eintracht Braunschweig's women's basketball team plays in the 2. Damen-Basketball-Bundesliga , the second tier of women's basketball in Germany.

In handball , MTV Braunschweig , the city's oldest sports club founded in , plays in the semi-professional 3.

Annual sporting events held in Braunschweig include the international equestrian tournament Löwen Classics , Rund um den Elm , Germany's oldest road bicycle race , [89] and the professional tennis tournament Sparkassen Open.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German city. For other uses, see Braunschweig disambiguation and Brunswick disambiguation.

City and district in Lower Saxony, Germany. Place in Lower Saxony, Germany. Coat of arms. Location of Brunswick within Lower Saxony.

See also: Timeline of Braunschweig. Altstadtmarkt , with Old Town town hall left and Stechinelli-Haus. See also: Braunschweig electoral district.

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. See also: Brunswick disambiguation. Main article: List of people from Braunschweig.

Hermann Blumenau — , founder of Blumenau , Brazil. Theodore Steinway — , piano makers [] Ludger Tom Ring the Younger — , painter [] Friedrich Georg Weitsch — , painter [] Christian Ludewig Theodor Winkelmann — , piano maker Franz Winter , archaeologist.

Germany portal. Retrieved August 16, Dezember The American Heritage Dictionary 3rd ed. Retrieved With the exception of Bremen and the areas that were ceded to the Soviet Occupation Zone in , all those areas allocated to the new state of Lower Saxony in , had already been merged into the "Constituency Association of Lower Saxony" in In a lecture on 14 September , Dietmar von Reeken described the emergence of a "Lower Saxony consciousness" in the 19th century, the geographical basis of which was used to invent a territorial construct: the resulting local heritage societies Heimatvereine and their associated magazines routinely used the terms "Lower Saxony" or "Lower Saxon" in their names.

At the end of the s in the context of discussions about a reform of the Reich, and promoted by the expanding local heritage movement Heimatbewegung , a year conflict started between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia".

The supporters of this dispute were administrative officials and politicians, but regionally focussed scientists of various disciplines were supposed to have fuelled the arguments.

In the s, a real Lower Saxony did not yet exist, but there was a plethora of institutions that would have called themselves "Lower Saxon". The motives and arguments in the disputes between "Lower Saxony" and "Westphalia" were very similar on both sides: economic interests, political aims, cultural interests and historical aspects.

Its minister president, Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , had already suggested in June the formation of a state of Lower Saxony, that was to include the largest possible region in the middle of the British Zone.

In addition to the regions that actually became Lower Saxony subsequently, Kopf asked, in a memorandum dated April , for the inclusion of the former Prussian district of Minden-Ravensberg i.

The strong Welf connotations of this draft, according to Thomas Vogtherr, did not simplify the development of a Lower Saxon identity after An alternative model, proposed by politicians in Oldenburg and Brunswick, envisaged the foundation of the independent state of "Weser-Ems", that would be formed from the state of Oldenburg, the Hanseatic City of Bremen and the administrative regions of Aurich and Osnabrück.

Several representatives of the state of Oldenburg even demanded the inclusion of the Hanoverian districts of Diepholz , Syke , Osterholz-Scharmbeck and Wesermünde in the proposed state of "Weser-Ems".

Likewise an enlarged State of Brunswick was proposed in the southeast to include the Regierungsbezirk of Hildesheim and the district of Gifhorn.

Had this plan come to fruition, the territory of the present Lower Saxony would have consisted of three states of roughly equal size.

If the State of Oldenburg was to be dissolved, Vechta District would much rather be included in the Westphalian region.

Since the foundation of the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Hanover on 23 August the northern and eastern border of North Rhine-Westphalia has largely been identical with that of the Prussian Province of Westphalia.

In the end, at the meeting of the Zone Advisory Board on 20 September , Kopf's proposal with regard to the division of the British occupation zone into three large states proved to be capable of gaining a majority.

But there were exceptions:. The demands of Dutch politicians that the Netherlands should be given the German regions east of the Dutch-German border as war reparations , were roundly rejected at the London Conference of 26 March In fact only about 1.

The first Lower Saxon parliament or Landtag met on 9 December It was not elected; rather it was established by the British Occupation Administration a so-called "appointed parliament".

That same day the parliament elected the Social Democrat , Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf , the former Hanoverian president Regierungspräsident as their first minister president.

Kopf led a five-party coalition, whose basic task was to rebuild a state afflicted by the war's rigours. Kopf's cabinet had to organise an improvement of food supplies and the reconstruction of the cities and towns destroyed by Allied air raids during the war years.

Hinrich Wilhelm Kopf remained — interrupted by the time in office of Heinrich Hellwege — — as the head of government in Lower Saxony until The greatest problem facing the first state government in the immediate post-war years was the challenge of integrating hundreds of thousands of refugees from Germany's former territories in the east such as Silesia and East Prussia , which had been annexed by Poland and the Soviet Union.

Lower Saxony was at the western end of the direct escape route from East Prussia and had the longest border with the Soviet Zone.

On 3 October Lower Saxony took over the sponsorship of the very large number of refugees from Silesia. In there was still a shortage of , homes according to official figures.

During the period when Germany was divided, the Lower Saxon border crossing at Helmstedt found itself on the main transport artery to West Berlin and, from to was the busiest European border crossing point.

Of economic significance for the state was the Volkswagen concern, that restarted the production of civilian vehicles in , initially under British management, and in transferred into the ownership of the newly founded country of West Germany and state of Lower Saxony.

Overall, Lower Saxony, with its large tracts of rural countryside and few urban centres, was one of the industrially weaker regions of the federal republic for a long time.

Even in economically prosperous times the jobless totals in Lower Saxony are constantly higher than the federal average.

He was replaced in by Alfred Kubel. The arguments about the Gorleben Nuclear Waste Repository , that began during the time in office of minister president Ernst Albrecht — , have played an important role in state and federal politics since the end of the s.

In Gerhard Schröder entered the office of minister president. It enables referenda and plebiscites and establishes environmental protection as a fundamental state principle.

From these parishes the new municipality of Amt Neuhaus was created on 1 October Because he had been linked with various scandals in his home city of Brunswick, he resigned in and was replaced by Sigmar Gabriel.

After the elections on 20 January McAllister was deselected. Between and , the state's districts and independent towns were grouped into eight regions, with different status for the two regions Verwaltungsbezirke comprising the formerly free states of Brunswick and Oldenburg.

In the regions were merged into four governorates Regierungsbezirke : Since the Bezirksregierungen regional governments have been broken up again. On 1 January the four administrative regions or governorates Regierungsbezirke , into which Lower Saxony had been hitherto divided, were dissolved.

The According to the archaeozoologist Ivo Verheijen, 6. Researchers also uncovered two long bones and 30 small flint flakes that were used as tools for knapping among the elephant bones.

Jordi Serangeli. At the end of , there were almost Religion in Lower Saxony Census : [22]. The census stated that a majority of the population were Christians As of , the Evangelical Church in Germany was the faith of Together, these member churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany gather a substantial part of the Protestant population in Germany.

The Catholic Church was the faith of The Catholic faith is mainly concentrated to the regions of Oldenburger Münsterland, region of Osnabrück, region of Hildesheim and in the Western Eichsfeld.

The Gross domestic product GDP of the state was Agriculture, strongly weighted towards the livestock sector, has always been a very important economic factor in the state.

The north and northwest of Lower Saxony are mainly made up of coarse sandy soil that makes crop farming difficult and therefore grassland and cattle farming are more prevalent in those areas.

Towards the south and southeast, extensive loess layers in the soil left behind by the last ice age allow high-yield crop farming. One of the principal crops there is sugar beet.

Consequently, the Land has a big food industry, mainly organized in small and medium-sized enterprises SME. Mining has also been an important source of income in Lower Saxony for centuries.

Silver ore became a foundation of notable economic prosperity in the Harz Mountains as early as the 12th century, while iron mining in the Salzgitter area and salt mining in various areas of the state became another important economic backbone.

Although overall yields are comparatively low, Lower Saxony is also an important supplier of crude oil in the European Union.

Mineral products still mined today include iron and lignite. Radioactive waste is frequently transported in the area to the city of Salzgitter , for the deep geological repository Schacht Konrad and between Schacht Asse II in the Wolfenbüttel district and Lindwedel and Höfer.

Manufacturing is another large part of the regional economy. Despite decades of gradual downsizing and restructuring, the car maker Volkswagen with its five production plants within the state's borders still remains the single biggest private-sector employer, its world headquarters in Wolfsburg.

Due to the Volkswagen Law , which has recently been ruled illegal by the European Union 's high court, the state of Lower Saxony is still the second largest shareholder, owning Meyer Werft , biotechnology , and steel.

Medicine plays a major role: Hanover and Göttingen have two large University Medical Schools and hospitals and Otto Bock in Duderstadt is the word leader in prosthetics.

The service sector has gained importance following the demise of manufacturing in the s and s. Important branches today are the tourism industry with TUI AG in Hanover, one of Europe's largest travel companies, as well as trade and telecommunication.

Hanover is one of Germany's main location of insurance companies e. Talanx , Hannover Re. In October the unemployment rate stood at 5.

Lower Saxony has four World Heritage Sites. Michael's Church in Hildesheim. Upper Harz Water Regale. Lower Saxony was one of the origins of the German environmentalist movement in reaction to the state government's support for underground nuclear waste disposal.

This led to the formation of the German Green Party in In the election , the ruling CDU held on to its position as the leading party in the state, despite losing votes and seats.

The election also saw the entry into the state parliament for the first time of the leftist The Left party. He governs in coalition with the CDU.

Hanover, a former kingdom, is by far the largest of these contributors by area and population and has been a province of Prussia since The city of Hanover is the largest and capital city of Lower Saxony.

The constitution states that Lower Saxony be a free, republican, democratic, [30] social and environmentally sustainable state inside the Federal Republic of Germany; universal human rights, peace and justice are preassigned guidelines of society, and the human rights and civil liberties proclaimed by the constitution of the Federal Republic are genuine constituents of the constitution of Lower Saxony.

Each citizen is entitled to education and there is universal compulsory school attendance. All government authority is to be sanctioned by the will of the people, which expresses itself via elections and plebiscites.

The legislative assembly is a unicameral parliament elected for terms of five years. The composition of the parliament obeys to the principle of proportional representation of the participating political parties, but it is also ensured that each constituency delegates one directly elected representative.

If a party wins more constituency delegates than their statewide share among the parties would determine, it can keep all these constituency delegates.

The governor of the state prime minister and his ministers are elected by the parliament. As there is a system of five political parties in Germany and so also in Lower Saxony, it is usually the case that two or more parties negotiate for a common political agenda and a commonly determined composition of government where the party with the biggest share of the electorate fills the seat of the governor.

The states of the Federal Republic of Germany, and so Lower Saxony, have legislative responsibility and power mainly reduced to the policy fields of the school system, higher education, culture and media and police, whereas the more important policy fields like economic and social policies, foreign policy etc.

Hence the probably most important function of the federal states is their representation in the Federal Council Bundesrat , where their approval on many crucial federal policy fields, including the tax system, is required for laws to become enacted.

The Minister-President heads the state government, acting as a head of state even if the federated states have the status of a state, they don't established the office of a head of state but merged the functions with the head of the executive branch as well as the government leader.

They are elected by the Landtag of Lower Saxony. The coat of arms shows a white horse Saxon Steed on red ground, which is an old symbol of the Saxon people.

Legend has it that the horse was a symbol of the Saxon leader Widukind. But this one should have been black. The colour has been changed by Christian baptism of Widukind into white.

White and red are the other colours despite to Gold and black of the Holy Roman Empire symbolizing Christ as the Saviour, who is still shown with a white flag with a red cross.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other places with a similar name, see Saxony disambiguation. State in Germany. Coat of arms.

See also: List of cities in Lower Saxony by population. Roman Catholicism Evangelical Free Churches 1.

Orthodox Church 0.

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Niedersachsenlied [Anthem of Lower Saxony][+English translation]

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